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The Research Collection

Key research on issues relating to hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and surgery.

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Prevention, Identification and Management of Postoperative Hypoparathyroidism 
Salvatore Lazzara1 , Alberto Barbera1 , Guido Nicola Zanghì2 , Francesco Freni3 , Grazia Pagano1 , Andrea Cogliandolo1 , Ozer Makay4 , Gianlorenzo Dionigi J Endocr Surg. 2018 Jun;18(2):121-131

Idiopathic Hypoparathyroidism and Severe Hypocalcemia in Pregnancy
Carine Ghassan Richa,1,2 Ali Ihsan Issa,1,2 Akram Salim Echtay,1,3 and Mohamad Souheil El Rawai. Case Reports in Endocrinology Volume 2018, Article ID 8316017, 4 pages


Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism and Related Disorders During Pregnancy and Lactation
Christopher S Kovacs, MD, FRCPC, FACP, FACE. 2018 Dec 4. In: De Groot LJ, Chrousos G, Dungan K, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279173/



The 5th National Audit Report 2017 from the BAETS Audit, now re-named as the United Kingdom Registry of Endocrine and Thyroid Surgery (UKRETS). David Chadwick, Robin Kinsman & Peter Walton on behalf of BAETS

Incidence, prevalence and risk factors for post-surgical hypocalcaemia and hypoparathyroidism Ovie Edafe and Sabapathy Prakash Balasubramanian. Gland Surg.2017 Dec; 6(Suppl 1): S59–S68. 





Management of Hypoparathyroidism: Summary Statement and Guidelines Report #1 from the First International Conference on “The Diagnosis, Management and Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism” held in Florence, Italy May 7–9, 2015Maria Luisa Brandi1 , John P. Bilezikian2 , Dolores Shoback3 , Roger Bouillon4 , Bart Clarke5 , Rajesh V. Thakker6 , Aliya Khan7 , and John T. Potts Jr J Clin Endocrinol Metab p

Effect of Low Vitamin D on Volumetric Bone Mineral Density, Bone Microarchitecture, and Stiffness in Primary Hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Mar;101(3):905-13. doi: 10.1210/jc.2015-4218. Epub 2016 Jan 8.Walker MD(1), Nishiyama KK(1), Zhou B(1), Cong E(1), Wang J(1), Lee JA(1), Kepley A(1), Zhang C(1), Guo XE(1), Silverberg SJ(1).

Effects of Parathyroid Hormone Administration on Bone Strength in Hypoparathyroidism.
Rubin MR1, Zwahlen A2, Dempster DW3,4, Zhou H4, Cusano NE1, Zhang C1, Müller R2, Bilezikian JP1.J Bone Miner Res. 2016 Jan 1. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2777. [Epub ahead of print]



G-Protein Subunit-α11 Loss-of-Function Mutation, Thr54Met, Causing Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia Type 2 (FHH2).
Gorvin CM, Cranston T, Hannan FM, Rust N, Qureshi A, Nesbit MA, Thakker RV. J Bone Miner Res. 2016 Jan 5. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2778. [Epub ahead of print]




European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Guideline: Treatment of chronic hypoparathyroidism in adults 
Jens Bollerslev1,2,*, Lars Rejnmark3,*, Claudio Marcocci4 , Dolores M Shoback5 , Antonio Sitges-Serra6 , Wim van Biesen7 and Olaf M Dekkers8,9,10


PTH(184replacement therapy for the treatment of hypoparathyroidism.
Cusano NE1, Rubin MR1, Bilezikian JP1. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2015 Jan 1;10(1):5-13.


Koschker AC1Burger-Stritt S1Hahner S1. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2015 Aug;140(16):1195-7. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-102880. Epub 2015 Aug 11.


The Syndrome of Familial Hypoparathyroidism, Sensorineural Deafness and Renal Dysplasia.
Meena RLMaloo SKSamar NRuhela ASaini SJ Assoc Physicians India. 2015 Jun;63(6):73-5.


Defining the syndromes of parathyroid failure after total thyroidectomy
Leyre Lorente-Poch,1,2 Juan J. Sancho,1,2 Jose Luis Muñoz-Nova,3 Patricia Sánchez-Velázquez,1,2 and Antonio Sitges-Serracorresponding author1,2 Gland Surg. 2015 Feb; 4(1): 82–90.



Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a due to a novel mutation in the GNAS gene.
Lemos MC, Christie PT, Rodrigues D, Thakker RV.Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2015 Sep 24. doi: 10.1111/cen.12953. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available

Parathyroid autotransplantation during total thyroidectomy. Results of a retrospective study.
Tartaglia F1, Blasi S2, Giuliani A3, Merola R4, Livadoti G5, Krizzuk D6, Tortorelli G7, Tromba L8.Int J Surg. 2015 Dec 18. pii: S1743-9191(15)01447-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2015.05.059. [Epub ahead of print]


An open-label extension study of parathyroid hormone rhPTH (1-84) in adults with hypoparathyroidism
Lakatos P1, Bajnok L2, Lagast H3, Valkusz Z4.Endocr Pract. 2015 Dec 18. [Epub ahead of print]


Management of Graves Disease: A Review.
Burch HB, Cooper DS. JAMA. 2015 Dec 15;314(23):2544-54. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.16535. Review.




Systematic review and meta-analysis of predictors of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia.Edafe O1, Antakia R, Laskar N, Uttley L, Balasubramanian SP.Br J Surg. 2014 Mar;101(4):307-20. doi: 10.1002/bjs.9384. Epub 2014 Jan 9.


Treatment related morbidity in differentiated thyroid cancer-a survey of clinicians. Edafe O1, Wadsley J, Harrison BJ, Balasubramanian SP.Thyroid Res. 2014 Mar 11;7(1):3. doi: 10.1186/1756-6614-7-3.


Incidence and predictors of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia in a tertiary endocrine surgical unit.Edafe O1, Prasad P, Harrison BJ, Balasubramanian SP.Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2014 Apr;96(3):219-23. doi: 10.1308/003588414X13814021679753.


Understanding the burden of illness associated with hypoparathyroidism reported among patients in the PARADOX study. Hadker, Eden, Sanders, Lagast, Clarke Endocrine Practice Vol20 No7 July 2014 


Impact of postoperative magnesium levels on early hypocalcaemia and permanent hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy.Garrahy A1, Murphy MS, Sheahan P.Head Neck. 2014 Dec 9. doi: 10.1002/hed.23937. 

Prevalence of hypocalcaemia and its associated features in 22q11·2 deletion syndrome Cheung EN1, George SR, Costain GA, Andrade DM, Chow EW, Silversides CK, Bassett AS.Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014 Aug;81(2):190-6. doi: 10.1111/cen.12466. Epub 2014 May 27.


Prolonged spontaneous normocalcaemia in pseudohypoparathyroidism from resorption of soft tissue calcium deposits: a cautionary tale. Carter EE, Kline G, BMJ Case Rep 2014 Jan 30;2014. pii: bcr2013202729. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2013-202729.



Marcocci CBollerslev JKhan AAShoback DM.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Oct;99(10):3607-18. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-1417. Epub 2014 Aug 27.



Guidelines for the management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: summary statement from the Fourth International Workshop.
Bilezikian JP1, Brandi MLEastell RSilverberg SJUdelsman RMarcocci CPotts JT Jr.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Oct;99(10):3561-9. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-1413. Epub 2014 Aug 27.


Efficacy and safety of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-84) in hypoparathyroidism (REPLACE): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, phase 3 study. Mannstadt M1Clarke BL2Vokes T3Brandi ML4Ranganath L5Fraser WD6Lakatos P7Bajnok L8Garceau R9Mosekilde L10Lagast H9Shoback D11,Bilezikian JP12Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2013 Dec;1(4):275-83. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70106-2. Epub 2013 Oct 7.


Calcium homeostasis in a patient with hypoparathyroidism during pregnancy, lactation and menstruation Omar M. Al Nozha, SSCIM a, * and Pardis Malakzadeh-Shirvani, MD  April 2013 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2013.01.003


Normocalcemic Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Natalie E. CusanoShonni J. Silverberg, and John P. Bilezikian J.Clin.Densitom 013 Jan-Mar  16(1),33-39



A.Khan Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 26(4):517-22 · August 2012 


A protocol for avoidance of post-thryoidectomy hypocalcaemia, results of first 12 months’ audit
Leo Alexandre, Simon Pain & Jeremy Turner Endocrine Abstracts (2012) 28 P45 


Predictors of Hypocalcemia after Thyroidectomy: Results from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample RL. BaldassarreDC. ChangKT. BrumundM.Bouvet. IRSN Surg. 2012;2012:838614


Influence of experience on performance of individual surgeons in thyroid surgery: prospective cross sectional multicentre study
Duclos et al, BMJ 2012:344


Mini-review: new therapeutic options in hypoparathyroidism.
Cusamo,NERubin MRSliney J JrBilezikian JP. Endocrine 2012 Jun;41(3):410-4. Epub 2012 Feb 7.


Normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism: A newly emerging disease needing therapeutic intervention
Gonzalo Díaz-Soto, María Teresa Julián, Manel Puig-Domingo HORMONES 2012, 11(4):390-396



Diagnosis and management of parathyroid cancer
Klaus-Martin Schulte Nadia Talat  Nature Reviews Endocrinology volume8, pages612–622 (2012)



Hypoparathyroidism in the adult: Epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, target-organ involvement, treatment, and challenges for future research
JP Bilezikian, A Khan, JT Potts, ML Brandi, BL Clarke, D.Shoback, H.Juppner, P. D'Amour, J.Fox, L. Rejnmark, L.Mosekilde, MR. Rubin, D.Dempster, R.Gafni, MT Collins, J.Sliney, J.Sanders.Journal of Bone and Mineral Research,Volume 26Issue 10pages 2317–2337October 2011. 

Synthetic human parathyroid hormone 1-34 replacement therapy : A randomised crossover trial comparing pump versus injection in the treatment of chronic hypoparathyroidism.
K.Winer et al J,Clim Edocri ol. Metab 2011 Nov 16. [Epub ahead of print]


The effect of adding PTH(1-84) to conventional treatment of hypoparathyroidism: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Sikjaer, Reinmark, Rolighed, Heinkendorff, Mosekiilde, Hypoparathyroidism Study Group;  J Bone Miner Res2011 Oct;26(10):2358-70. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.470.


Tetany: A diagnostic dilemma
Aparna WilliamsDootika Liddle, and Valsa Abraham J.Anasaethesiol. Clin.Pharmacol 2011 Jul-Sep; 27(3): 393–394.





Hypocalcaemia after thyroidectomy: the need for improved defenitions
Jessie Wu & Barney Harrison WJES Jan-April 2010;2(1):17-20

Diagnosis and management of vitamin D deficiency
Pearce and Cheetham BMJ Jan 2010;340;b5664

Outcome of protracted hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy.Sitges-Serra ARuiz SGirvent MManjón HDueñas JPSancho JJ. 2010 Nov;97(11):1687-95.


Long-term treatment of 12 children with chronic hypoparathyroidism: a randomized trial comparing synthetic human parathyroid hormone 1–34 versus calcitriol and calcium. Winer KKSinaii NReynolds JPeterson DDowdy KCutler GB Jr. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:26808.

Parathyroid Disorders and Diseases Altering Calcium Metabolism. 
Thakker R (2010) In: Warrell, D.A., Cox, T.M. and Firth, J.D. (Eds.) Oxford textbook of medicine. Volume 2, 5th edn. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Chapter 13.6

Therapy of hypoparathyroidism with intact parathyroid hormone.
Rubin MRSliney J JrMcMahon DJSilverberg SJBilezikian JP. Osteoporosis Int. 2010 Nov;21(11):1927-34. Epub 2010 Jan 22.



A Practical Approach to Hypocalcaemia in Children
Nick Shaw in Allgrove J, Shaw NJ (eds): Calcium and Bone Disorders in Children and Adolescents.Endocr Dev. Basel, Karger, 2009, vol 16, pp 73–92


Guidelines for the management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: summary statement from the Third International Workshop. 
Bilezikian JPKhan APotts JT Jr.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:3359.


Medical management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: proceedings of the Third International Workshop. Khan A, Grey A, Shoback D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:373–81. doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-1762. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]


Anti-Parathyroid and Anti-Calcium Sensing Receptor Antibodies in Autoimmune Hypoparathyroidism
Brown, E. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics. 2009;38(2).



Diagnosis & Management of Hypocalcaemia: Clinical Review
Cooper and Gittoes  BMJ  2008;336:1298-1302 (7 June)2008


Unrecognised Severe Hypovitaminosis D
Sievenpiper, McIntrye, Verrill, Quinton, Pearce BMJ  2008;336:1371-1374 (14 June)


Hypoparathyroidism: Is It Time for Replacement Therapy?
Horwitz and Stewart (93 (9): 3307 JECM 2008) Click PDF download


Hypoparathyroidism : Clinical Review
Shoback, D NEJM Vol 359:391-403 July 2008


Vitamin D status in postmenopausal women living at higher latitudes in the UK 
Macdonald, Macvroeid, Barr,Black , Fraser, Reid  (Vol 42:5, 996-1003, May 2008 Bone)


DiGeorge Syndrome presenting as late onset hypocalcaemia in adulthood
Johnston, Donnelly, Morrison and Hunter Ulster Med J 2008; 77 (3) 201-202


Effects of once versus twice -daily PTH 1-34 therapy in children with HPTH
Winer, Sinaii, Peterson, Sainz, Cutler  JCEM 2008 Sep;93(9):3389-952008


Dynamic and structural properties of the skeleton in hypoparathyroidism.
J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23(12):2018-34.Rubin MR, Dempster DW, Zhou H, Shane E, Nickolas T, Sliney J,Silverberg SJ, Bilezikian JP.  


Hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy: A prospective study
Asari RKoperek OKaczirek K, et al. 
Arch Surg.2008;143:1327.

Best practice in primary care pathology: review 11.
Smellie, W.S., Vanderpump, M.P., Fraser, W.D. et al. (2008
Journal of Clinical Pathology 61(4), 410-418.



Vitamin D Deficiency: Clinical Review
Holick, MF  NEJM Volume 357:266-281 July 2007


Cyclical changes in calcium metabolism across the menstrual cycle in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Thys-Jacobs, McMahon, Bilezikian JCEM 2007


Hypocalcemic tetany in the newborn as a manifestation of unrecognized maternal primary hyperparathyroidism. 
Pieringer H, Hatzl-Griesenhofer M, Shebl O, et al.  Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007;119:129-131

The impact of single parathyroid gland autotransplantation during thyroid surgery on postoperative hypoparathyroidism: a multicenter study. Transplant Proc.Testini M, Rosato L, Avenia N, et al.  2007;39:225-230.



Withdrawal of alfacalcidol supplements following thyroidectomy: baseline plasma PTH predicts successful outcome
Morris, M & Perros, P  Presented at European Congress of Endocrinology, Glasgow 2006 (Endocrine Abstracts 11: P919 2006)



A comparison of corrected serum calcium levels to ionized calcium levels among critically ill surgical patients.
Byrnes MC, Huynh K, Helmer SD, et al.  Am J Surg. 2005;189:310-314.

Magnesium deficiency in critical illness

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